are fabricated in very pristine conductions. Even the production of monocrystalline semiconductors is sensitive to interference. Until the chip is poured into the resin, every operational step needs to be conducted in very pristine conditions. The smallest amount of dirt, even a single dust particle on the microchip, could immediately damage the product. The whole process of semiconductor device fabrication is, in its complexity, incomparable to any other industrial sector. Only specialists and highly-skilled workers should be involved during the manufacturing of semiconductor devices. Machines used for the fabrication of semiconductor
ingots are put into special melting ovens. They are cut into slices with mechanical machines such as metal band saws
. The microscopic structures on the slices are brought about using immersion lithography equipment. The microchips
themselves are then fabricated using special machines. The manufacturing of these microchips requires a larger variety of machines and equipment. This is particularly the case for the clean-room technology and quality control of the microchips. Because of the high risk of damage during the manufacturing process, the safety measures taken by the manufacturer is of great importance. Strong air filter systems and elaborate control systems should keep the scrap rate to a minimum.