The most important component parts of a turning centre lathe are the tool slide, the tailstock, the workpiece mount, the chuck, the feed and the headstock. A manual machine is controlled by a person turning handles on the cross slide and top slide. These handles turn the chuck, which drives the movement that makes the part. The speed of the chuck can be altered by opening the headstock and changing the arrangement of the gears.
Centre lathe processes have changed dramatically over the years. Computers now take charge of production, and modern machines are fitted with a quick-action tool holder. This allows different tools to be used during the same production process through an automated switching process. Human involvement in the manufacturing of a part can be cut significantly, which improves the profitability of the operation.
A workpiece is fixed in the tailstock and clamped into place to ensure it can't move during the manufacturing process. In order to prevent tiny vibrations that can cause irregularities in the finished parts, a bezel can be used. This is particularly effective when working at high speeds or with particularly long workpieces.